Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, R. stylosa, R. × annamalai, R. × lamarckii
Botany of Mangrove
Norman C. Duke
Distribution Native to tropical and subtropical coastal areas from the African east coast, throughout Asia to Australia and to most islands of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Closely allied with Atlantic–East Pacific red mangroves whose ranges naturally overlap only in a small number of southern Pacific islands.
Can reach 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height, although commonly reaches 5–8 m (16–26 ft).
Habitat Inhabits the intertidal wetland zone, 0–6 m (0–20 ft) elevation between mean sea level and highest tides, with variable rainfall.
Vegetation Mangrove communities.
Soils Adapted to a wide range but thrives best in fine mud sediments of downstream river estuaries.
Growth rate Grows <1 m/yr (3.3 ft/yr) in height.
Main agroforestry uses Soil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna.
Main products Timber, fuelwood, charcoal, dyes, and traditional medicine.
Yields In Malaysia, the 30-year rotation harvested yield of green wood has been about 136– 299 mt/ha (61–133 t/ac).
Intercropping Recommended for planting together with other mangrove species.
Invasive potential Has potential to invade new environments; not recommended for planting outside of the natural range. These plants are ready colonizers of new mud banks, making them opportunistically invasive.
BOTANI MANGROVE (Rhizophoraceae)